1. Vortigern
      Latin: Uurtigernus; Welsh: Gwrtheyrn
      Gurthrigern, Gwrteym, Fortager, Fortagere, Fortageres, Fortages, Fortiger, Fortigers, Uertiger, Vertaggiere, Vertiger, Vertigier, Vitiglier, Vortiger

      Vortigern was seneschal to King Constans of Britain, Arthur's grandfather. After the death of Constans, twelve barons who wanted Vortigern for their king murdered Constans' eldest son, Maines. Vortigern gained the kingship and allied himself to the Saxons. As king of Britain his reign preceded Ambrosius in the mid-fifth century. He invited Hengist to Britain to rid the land of Saxons, but Hengist in turn conquered Kent.

      In fear of Constans' remaining sons, Pandragon and Uther, Vortigern tried to build himself a tower, but did not succeed until after the child Merlin had shown him a pair of dragons in a great water beneath the tower's proposed foundations, and made a very unfavorable prophecy about what the dragons symbolized for Vortigern. True to Merlin's prediction, Pandragon and Uther killed Vortigern and burned his tower.

      Historical character
      Vortigern was a fifth century British ruler who is first mentioned by Bede. He is blamed by the Welsh for the Saxons' settlement in Britain, and thus for their eventual takeover of what is now England. Vortigern's friendship with them is the cause of the troubles that Arthur temporarily ends.

      As Vortigern means 'overlord', it may have been a title rather than a name, but this is by no means certain. He was connected with central Wales, South Wales and possibly Gloucester, from whose alleged founder he was thought to be descended. It cannot be stated with certainty over how much of Britain his sway extended, but he is generally regarded as historical, though H. Butler thinks it quite possible he is purely legendary. Nennius says he began to reign in AD 425. He may have married a daughter of Maximus, the rebel Roman emperor who led an expedition from Britain to the Continent. He is credited with sons called Vortimer, Catigern, Pascent and Faustus.

      See also
      Britu | The Legend of King Arthur
      Cadal | The Legend of King Arthur
      Germanus of Auxerre | The Legend of King Arthur
      Sevira | The Legend of King Arthur

    2. Vortigern
      Guorthegrin, Gwrtheyrnion

      A fortress built by King Vortigern. Nennius says that it is in North Wales, but he later places it in Dyfed, in South Wales. Geoffrey of Monmouth calls it Ganarew.

    3. Vortigern's Prophet

      The name given to Merlin after his famous series of prophecies before Merlin and his assembly at Mount Snowdon.

    4. Vortigern's Tower
      Vergier's Tower

      According to a tradition not found in Malory, this tower kept falling down. Vortigern's astrologers told him that to stand the masonry required the blood of a fatherless child. Vortigern found the young Merlin, who had been engendered by a devil and thus could be considered fatherless, but Merlin saved himself by making explanations and predictions which were found true.

      Artist: Unknown

      According to Merlin's statement, a lake was discovered beneath the tower. There a red dragon (symbolizing Vortigern) and a white dragon (symbolizing Pandragon and Uther, the two sons of King Constans, whom Vortigern had murdered to gain his power) fought to the death. The white dragon killed the red, but soon afterward died itself. The sons of Constans burned Vortigern's Tower after they killed him.

      Clues in the Vulgate led Phyllis Ann Karr to believe that Vortigern's Tower was near Winchester. Because of the name, Din Guortigern, mentioned by Nennius and identified by one Mr. Pearson as on the Teviot River, is another contender.