Cologne

Latin: Colonia Claudia Ara Agrippinensium
Coloigne, Coloine
German: Köln

Cologne is a major city located in western Germany, situated on the banks of the River Rhine.

In Cligés, Cologne is part of the realm of Emperor Henry of Germany, father of Fenice. Emperor Alis and Fenice is married in Cologne. In the Vulgate Lancelot, Cologne is named as the home of the scribe Arodian (Arodion) and the sage Agnatices (Agarnices).

Sir Thomas Malory’s Le Morte d’Arthur mentions Cologne as the site of a castle besieged and won by Lucius the Roman during his campaign against Arthur. Cologne is also describes as the birthplace of Helyes of Thoulouse, one of the nine wise clerks whom King Arthur sends to Duke Galeholt in response to his challenge.


Cologne | 0 to the 9th century AD

Roman Foundation | 1st century AD
Cologne, originally known as Colonia Claudia Ara Agrippinensium, was established by the Romans in the first century AD, around the year 50. It was named after the Roman Empress Agrippina, who was born in Cologne. The city served as a major Roman outpost on the Rhine River.

Roman Urbanization and Trade | 1st – 3rd centuries
Cologne quickly became an important Roman city, with a layout typical of Roman urban planning, including a forum, temples, city walls, and gates. The city thrived as a center for trade and commerce along the river, contributing to its economic and cultural significance.

Cologne’s Importance in the Roman Empire
Cologne’s strategic location along the Rhine made it a key military and economic center in the Roman province of Germania Inferior. The city served as a base for Roman military campaigns, and its prosperity was linked to the Roman Empire’s expansion into Germanic territories.

Germanic Invasions | 3rd century
In the third century, Cologne faced challenges during the period of Germanic invasions and incursions. The city’s defense were put to the test as various Germanic tribes sought to penetrate Roman territories.

Late Roman and Early Medieval Period | 4th – 9th centuries
The late Roman period saw Cologne’s transition from a Roman city to a Frankish and later Carolingian settlement. The Franks, a Germanic people, gradually took control of the region in the late fifth century, and Cologne became part of the Frankish Kingdom.

Religious Importance
The city’s status as a bishopric dates back to the late fourth century when the first bishop, Maternus, was consecrated. Cologne played a crucial role in the spread of Christianity in the region. The city’s early Christian roots are associated with notable figures such as Saint Ursula and the Eleven Thousand Virgins.

Viking Raids | 9th century
In the ninth century, Cologne faced Viking raids along the Rhine River, a common occurrence in many riverine settlements during this period.


See also
Arodion | The Legend of King Arthur


Sources
Cligés | Chrétien de Troyes, late 12th century
Vulgate Lancelot | 1215-1230
Le Morte Darthur | Sir Thomas Malory, 1469-1470