Nightbringer | The Arthurian Online Encyclopedia


Thoulouse, Toulousans

Toulouse is a major city in southwestern France, built on the banks of the Garonne River.

According to the Alliterative Morte Arthure, it was part of Arthur’s empire. The knight Kay of Estral carried a shield, bridle, and breast-strap made in the city.

It was the home of Elias, one of Arthur’s sages, and the birthplace of Helyes, one of Arthur’s wise clerks.

Toulouse | 1st century BC – 9th century AD

Roman Period | 1st century BC – 5th century AD
Toulouse, known as Tolosa in Roman times, was established as a Roman colony in the first century BC. It became an important administrative and commercial center within the Roman province of Gallia Narbonensis. The city had a thriving economy, with well-preserved Roman structures like the amphitheater and the city wall.

Visigothic Rule | 5th – 8th centuries
Following the fall of the Western Roman Empire in the fifth century, Toulouse became part of the Visigothic Kingdom. During this period, it continued to be a center of administration and governance. The city’s Christian heritage was further solidified under Visigothic rule.

Muslim Conquest | 8th century
In 721, the Muslim forces under the Umayyad Caliphate began their expansion into the Iberian Peninsula. Toulouse fell to the Muslim armies in 721, marking a period of Muslim control in the region. This era saw the introduction of Islamic culture and architecture to the area.

Carolingian Reconquest | 9th century
Toulouse was eventually retaken from the Muslims by Frankish forces led by Charlemagne in the late eighth century. Under Carolingian rule, the city was incorporated into the Carolingian Empire. The Christian Church played a significant role in the re-establishment of Christian authority.

Cligés | Chrétien de Troyes, late 12th century
Vulgate Lancelot | 1215-1230
Alliterative Morte Arthure | c. 1400