Nightbringer | The Arthurian Online Encyclopedia


Cairo is the capital and largest city of Egypt and is located on the banks of the Nile River.

In Malory, this Egyptian city is allied to Lucius, Arthur’s enemy in the Roman War.

Cairo, as we know it today, did not exist during the time of Arthur. It was established in 969 AD by the Fatimid Caliphate as the new capital of their empire.

Egypt | Antique to the 12th century AD

Ancient Settlements
Prior to the establishment of Cairo, the area along the Nile River was inhabited by ancient Egyptian civilizations. The region was part of the broader historical and cultural context of ancient Egypt.

Roman and Byzantine Periods | 1st – 7th centuries
The Roman Empire controlled Egypt from 30 BC to the seventh century AD. During this period, Alexandria was the prominent city in the region. Egypt became part of the Byzantine Empire after the division of the Roman Empire.

Islamic Conquest and the Foundation of Al-Fustat | 7th century
In 641, the Arab-Muslim forces, led by Amr ibn al-As, conquered Egypt, including the region around what would become Cairo. The Arab-Muslim conquest marked the beginning of Islamic rule in the area. Shortly after the conquest, in 641-642 AD, the Arab general Amr ibn al-As founded the city of Al-Fustat, often considered the precursor to Cairo. Al-Fustat served as the first Islamic capital in Egypt.

Founding of Cairo | 969 AD
The city of Cairo was formally founded in 969 AD by the Fatimid Caliphate under the leadership of Jawhar al-Siqilli. Cairo was established as the new capital, replacing Al-Fustat. The city was initially named Al-Qahira.

Fatimid Caliphate | 10th – 12th centuries
Cairo became a center of political, cultural, and economic activity during the Fatimid Caliphate. The caliphs initiated significant construction projects, including the construction of the Cairo Citadel.

Cairo continued to grow in importance as a center of trade and scholarship. The city became known for its markets, mosques, and educational institutions.

Seljuk and Crusader Periods | 11th – 12th centuries
During the eleventh and twelfth centuries, Cairo faced challenges from external forces, including the Seljuk Turks and the Crusaders. Despite these challenges, Cairo remained a vital Islamic center.

See also
Africa | The Legend of King Arthur
Egypt | The Legend of King Arthur
Egyptian Maid | The Legend of King Arthur
Pandrasus of Egypt | The Legend of King Arthur

Le Morte Darthur | Sir Thomas Malory, 1469-1470