Egypte, Egypticyens, Egyptien, Egyptijen, Egyte
The Vulgate Estoire del Saint Graal says that King Evalach (Evelake) (later Mordrains) of Sarras was able to defeat the Egyptians, led by King Tholomer the Fugitive, with the help of Joseph of Arimathea, who brought the power of Christianity. As a result, Evalach converted.
In Arthur’s time, according to Geoffrey of Monmouth, Egypt was allied with Rome, and King Pandrasus of Egypt joined the Roman Emperor’s war against Arthur. Malory says that this king, who was also king of Ethiopia, was slain at the battle of Soissons. In Claris et Laris, Egypt is ruled by King Eleazar, an ally of Emperor Thereus of Rome.
Egypt is one of the many lands that Arthur conquers in Jean D’Outremeuse’s Ly Myreur des Histors.
Egypt | 0-600 AD
Egypt is one of the world’s oldest civilizations, with a history that dates back over 5,000 years. In the early part of the period 0 to 600 AD, Egypt was under Roman rule, following the conquest of Cleopatra VII and Mark Antony by Octavian (later known as Emperor Augustus) in 30 BC. Egypt became a Roman province known as Aegyptus, and it remained a vital territory within the Roman Empire.
In the fourth century AD, the Roman Empire split into the Eastern Roman Empire (Byzantine Empire) and the Western Roman Empire. Egypt came under the control of the Eastern Roman Empire, and it continued to be an important center of trade, culture, and Christianity in the region.
The city of Alexandria, founded by Alexander the Great in 331 BC, continued to be a major cultural and intellectual hub during this period. The famous Library of Alexandria, which had been established in the third century BC, reached its zenith during the early centuries AD and was renowned as one of the largest and most significant libraries of the ancient world.
Christianity began to spread in Egypt during this period, and the country became an early center of Christian thought and theology. The Coptic Church, one of the oldest Christian denominations in the world, traces its origins to the evangelist Saint Mark, who is believed to have brought Christianity to Alexandria in the first century AD. The Copts developed their own version of the Egyptian language, known as Coptic, which used the Greek alphabet with additional signs borrowed from demotic Egyptian script. Coptic became the language of the Coptic Church and was used for religious texts and liturgy.
Despite the growth of Christianity, there were periods of persecution and repression of Christians by Roman and later Byzantine authorities. Emperors such as Diocletian, who ruled 284-305 AD, and others issued edicts to suppress Christianity, resulting in the martyrdom of many Christians in Egypt.
During the fifth and sixth centuries, the decline of the Roman Empire and the Byzantine Empire, coupled with economic challenges and internal strife, led to a decline in the cultural and economic prominence of Alexandria. In the seventh century, the Islamic Arab armies, led by Amr ibn al-As, conquered Egypt, bringing an end to Byzantine rule. The Arab conquest marked the beginning of Islamic Egypt and the spread of Islam in the region.
Historia Regum Britanniae | Geoffrey of Monmouth, c. 1138
Vulgate Estoire del Saint Graal | 1220-1235
Claris et Laris | 1268
Ly Myreur des Histors | Jean D’Outremeuse, c. 1350
Alliterative Morte Arthure | c. 1400
Le Morte Darthur | Sir Thomas Malory, 1469-1470