Nightbringer | The Arthurian Online Encyclopedia


Historically, the region known as “Holland” was a county in the Holy Roman Empire that later became part of the Dutch Republic.

Part of Arthur’s empire according to the Alliterative Morte Arthur, Holland did not exist as a country until the tenth century.

Holland | 0 to the 9th century AD

Roman Period | 1st – 5th centuries
During the early centuries of the Common Era, the region that would later become Holland was inhabited by various Germanic tribes. The Frisii were one of the prominent tribal groups in this area.

the Roman Empire extended its influence into the Low Countries, including the area that would later become Holland. The Romans established several forts and settlements in the region, and they introduced Roman infrastructure and culture. The town of Voorburg (Forum Hadriani) was one of the Roman settlements in what is now South Holland.

The Romans referred to the general region that encompasses modern-day Holland as Batavia or Germania Inferior. The northern regions of what is now the Netherlands, including parts of Holland, were beyond the Roman frontier.

Chrisitianization | 4th century onward
The introduction of Christianity to the Low Countries began from the fourth century. Christian missionaries, including Saint Willibrord, played a significant role in converting the local populations. Churches and monasteries were established, contributing to the spread of Christianity in the region.

Mirgration Period | 4th – 9th centuries
The Migration Period, also known as the Barbarian Invasions, witnessed the movement of various Germanic tribes across Europe, as well as the Low Countries. This period saw the decline of Roman influence in the early fifth century. Various Germanic tribes, including the Frisians, Saxons, and Batavians, inhabited the region and played a role in shaping its early medieval history. The Frisians, in particular, were known to inhabit parts of what is now North Holland.

The Franks, a Germanic tribe, began to establish their dominance in the Low Countries (including parts of present-day Holland). The region experienced a blend of Germanic cultures.

Frankish Influence | 5th – 9th centuries
The Frankish Kingdom, under leaders like Clovis, extended its influence over the Low Countries. The Frisians, who inhabited parts of Holland, maintained a degree of independence but were influenced by Frankish culture and governance.

Viking Incursions | 8th – 9th centuries
Towards the end of the eighth century, Viking raids and incursions became a significant threat to the coastal regions of what would later become Holland. Vikings targeted monasteries and settlements along rivers. These raids led to the construction of fortifications and defensive structures along riverbanks and coastlines, and the impact of Viking activities contributed to changes in local governance and the development of trade networks.

Alliterative Morte Arthure | c. 1400