Jerusalem is one of the oldest and most historically significant cities in the world. It is located in the Middle East, and is the largest city in Israel.

As an extension of its biblical role, Jerusalem is the setting for the early Grail history, including the origins of the Grail, the adventures and trials of Joseph of Arimathea, the Roman Emperor Vespasian’s campaign to avenge Christ’s death, and, eventually, Joseph’s departure for western lands. Christians from Jerusalem followed Joseph of Arimathea and populated Britain.

In the Vulgate MerlinMerlin visits Jerusalem and accurately depicts the Saracen king Flualis’s defeat at the hands of Christians, followed by his own conversion to Christianity. In De Ortu Waluuanii, Jerusalem serves as the site of Gawain’s first triumph: the city became the object of a dispute between Rome and Persia, and it was ruled that the matter would be decided by a single combat. The Persians put forth their best warrior, Gormundus, while the Emperor of Rome sent the young and untried Gawain. After a three-day battle, Gawain killed Gormundus and settled the conflict in Rome’s favor.

Jerusalem is one of the many cities and lands that Arthur conquers in Jean D’Outremeuse’s Ly Myreur des Histors.

Jerusalem | 0 to 16th century AD

Roman and Byzantine Period | 0 to 638 AD
In the first century AD, Jerusalem was under Roman rule, and it was during this period that Jesus of Nazareth lived and preached in the city. In 70 AD, the Romans destroyed the Second Temple, a central religious site in Judaism, during the Siege of Jerusalem. This event is commemorated by the Western Wall, a remnant of the Temple.

Jerusalem was part of the Roman Empire and later Byzantine Empire, and it continued to be a center of Christianity. In the fourth century AD, Constantine the Great, the Roman Emperor, converted to Christianity and ordered the construction of Christian churches in Jerusalem, including the Church of the Holy Sepulchre, traditionally believed to be the site of Jesus’ cruxifixion, burial, and resurecction.

Islamic Conquest | 638 AD
In 638 AD, Jerusalem was captured by the Arab forces of the Rashidun Caliphate, marking the beginning of Islamic rule in the city. The Dome of the Rock and the Al-Aqsa Mosque were built on the Temple Mount during the Umayyad Caliphate, making it one of the holiest sites in Islam. Despite changing political control, the religious significance of Jerusalem remained prominent.

Early Middle Ages | 7th to 11th centuries AD
Jerusalem was part of various Islamic caliphates and dynasties during this period, including the Abbasid Caliphate and the Fatimid Caliphate. The city was a destination for Muslim, Christian, and Jewish pilgrims, and it continued to be an important religious center.

Crusader Period | 1099-1187 AD
In 1099, during the First Crusade, Jerusalem was captured by Christian Crusaders, leading to the establishment of the Kingdom of Jerusalem. The Crusaders built several Christian churches during their rule, but their control was short-lived.

Ayyubid and Mamluk Rule | 12th to 15th centuries AD
In 1187, under the leadership of Saladin (Salah ad-Din), the Ayyubid dynasty recaptured Jerusalem from the Crusaders. Jerusalem remained under Islamic rule during the subsequent Mamluk period.

Ottoman Rule | 16th century AD
Jerusalem became part of the Ottoman Empire in 1517 and remained under Ottoman control for centuries. During this period, various religious communities had rights to their holy sites in the city.

See also
Holy Land | The Legend of King Arthur
The Roman Empire | The Legend of King Arthur

Vulgate Merlin | 1220-1235
Vulgate Estoire del Saint Graal | 1220-1235
De Ortu Waluuanii Nepotis Arturi | Late 13th century
Ly Myreur des Histors | Jean D’Outremeuse, c. 1350