Israel is a country located in the Middle East, on the southeastern shore of the Mediterranean Sea.
Israel | 0 to 700 AD
At the start of this period, the region was known as Roman Judea, and it was a province of the Roman Empire. In the first century AD, the life of Jesus of Nazareth, a central figure in Christianity, unfolded in the region, particularly in Jerusalem and Bethlehem.
During the period 66 to 135 AD, there were two major Jewish revolts against Roman rule: the First Jewish-Roman War (66-73 AD) and the Bar Kokhba Revolt (132-135 AD). The First Jewish-Roman War resulted in the destruction of the Second Temple in Jerusalem in 70 AD. The Bar Kokhba Revolt was brutally suppressed by the Romans, and it led to significant Jewish population loss and dispersion.
Christianity emerged and began to spread during the first century AD, with Jesus’ teachings as its foundation. Early Christian communities developed in the region, particularly in Jerusalem, which was a significant center of early Christianity. The spread of Christianity continued during the subsequent centuries, and it gradually gained recognition in the Roman Empire.
In the fourth century, the Roman Empire adopted Christianity as its official religion under Emperor Constantine the Great. The region of what is now Israel became part of the Byzantine Empire, the eastern Roman Empire, which was characterized by its Christian identity. Jerusalem was a key religious center within the Byzantine Empire, and many churches were constructed during this period.
Monasticism, a significant aspect of early Christianity, took root in the region during the Byzantine era. Monastic communities and monasteries were established. The Judean Desert and the area around the Dead Sea became known for their monastic settlements.
In the sixth and seventh centuries, the Byzantine Empire faced invasions and conflicts with the Sasanian Persian Empire. These conflicts affected the region, including Jerusalem, which was briefly captured by the Persians in 614 AD. In 636, the Arab Muslims, led by Rashidun Caliphate, defeated the Byzantines at the Battle of Yarmouk. This marked the beginning of Muslim rule in the region and the spread of Islam.