London

Latin: Londinium
Caer Lludd, Caer Lundein, Caer-Lundene, Laidon, Londen, Londres, Londrez, Lounde, Lunden, Lundres

London is the capital city of the United Kingdom. Its situated in southeastern England, along the banks of the River Thames. The city was founded by the Romans and has served as the capital of England since the twelfth century and later became the capital of the United Kingdom in the nineteenth century.

In Arthour and Merlin, the knight Marliaus attended a tournament in London.

This must have been a good place to buy armor: Cligés sent his squires here from Wallingford to buy three full suits of it – one black – one crimson, and one green – for him to wear in the Oxford tournament. They accomplished this within a fortnight.

According to a myth the city was allegedly founded by Brutus, who named the city Troia Nova, which means “New Troy.” The city subsequently became the capital of Lludd, the sixty-eighth ruler after Brutus, who fortified the walls, at which time it was known as Caer Lludd (“Lludd’s Fort”), Caer Lundein. Some time later the “Caer” was dropped, and the city simply became known as Lundein, of which the modern name is a simple derivation.


London | 0 to 1000 AD

Roman Londinium | c. 43 to 410 AD
Londinium was founded by the Romans around 43 AD during the Roman conquest of Britain. It was established as a strategic bridgehead on the north bank of the River Thames. The city quickly developed into a bustling Roman settlement with a bridge over the Thames, a forum, a basilica, and a fortification wall. Londinium became an important center for trade, commerce, and administration in Roman Britain.

The construction of the London Wall in the second century helped protect the city and defined its limits. Parts of these walls are still visible today.

Roman Decline and Departure | 4th – 5th centuries AD
In the late third and early fourth centuries, Londinium’s prosperity declined due to economic and political challenges within the Roman Empire. The city faced threats from invading forces, including raids by Saxon pirates along the coasts. Around 410 AD, as Roman control over Britain weakened, the Romans abandoned Londinium, marking the end of the Roman era in the city.

Early Medieval Period | 5th – 8th centuries AD
Following the Roman departure, Londinium fell into disrepair and likely experienced a decline in population. In the sixth and seventh centuries, Anglo-Saxons settlers from Germanic tribes, known as the Saxons and Jutes, began to establish their presence in the area. Londinium was part of the Kingdom of Essex during this period.

Viking Invasions | 8th – 9th centuries AD
Viking raids and invasions reached the shores of England in the late eighth century and early ninth century. In 842 AD, London was attacked and occupied by Viking forces. This marked a period of Viking control over the city, during which it became known as “Lundenwic.” The Vikings established the Danelaw, a region of Viking influence, and London fell within this sphere. The city faced periodic Viking incursions and control during this time.

Alfred the Great and Re-establishment | 9th century
King Alfred the Great of Wessex played a crucial role in resisting Viking invasions. The Treaty of Wedmore in 866 saw an agreement between Alfred and the Viking leader Guthrum, leading to relative stability in the region. Lundenwic was incorporated into the Kingdom of Wessex.

Rebuilding | 9th – 10th centuries AD
The tenth century saw London’s gradual revival as a trading center, known as “Lundenburgh” or “Lundentown.” The establishment of a royal mint in the city contributed to its economic growth. London began to regain its status as a regional hub and trading port.


See also
Caer Llundein | The Legend of King Arthur
London Bridge | The Legend of King Arthur
London Cathedral | The Legend of King Arthur
Lundein | The Legend of King Arthur
Lwndrys | The Legend of King Arthur
Saxon Rulers | The Legend of King Arthur
Tower of London | The Legend of King Arthur


Sources
Arthour and Merlin | Late 13th century
The Stanzaic Le Morte Arthur | 14th century
Le Morte Darthur | Sir Thomas Malory, 1469-1470