d’Angleterre, Engeland, Engelonde, Englaland, Englond, Engleterre, Ingland, Ingelande, Inghiltarre, Inglaterra, Inglond, Inglonde, Logres, Logris, Yngland, Ynglandes

England is a country that is part of the United Kingdom, located on the island of Great Britain in northwestern Europe. It shares borders with Scotland to the north and Wales to the west and is surrounded by the Atlantic Ocean, the North Sea, the English Channel, and the Irish Sea.

Although Arthur is often thought of as the King of England, the designation “England” (signifying “Angle-Land”) for the country below Scotland and east of Wales was not used until after the Anglo-Saxon conquest in the sixth and seventh centuries. The first Celts to land in England are traditionally thought to have arrived c. 600 BC. England remained a Celtic stronghold until the Roman invasion, although even then the English Celts retained a fair degree of autonomy. Prior to this, the area now thought of as “England” was called Logres. (In the Prose Brut, the name is derived from “Engist”, the Saxon leader.)

In the aftermath of the Roman withdrawal, various Germanic tribes, including the Angles, Saxons, and Jutes, began migrating to Britain from the European continent. They settled in different parts of the country and established their own kingdoms. The influx of Germanic tribes led to the establishment of several Anglo-Saxon kingdoms, including Wessex, Mercia, Northumbria, Kent, Sussex, and East Anglia, among others. These kingdoms were often in competition with each other for power and territory.

Despite the arrival of the Anglo-Saxons, Celtic and Romano-British communities continued to exist in various parts of England. The native Britons and the incoming Anglo-Saxons interacted and intermingled, leading to a blending of cultures and languages. Christianity began to spread in England. In 597 AD, Saint Augustine of Canterbury arrived and successfully converted King Æthelberht of Kent to Christianity. This marked the beginning of the Christianization of the Anglo-Saxon kingdoms.

In the eighth to tenth centuries, Viking raids and invasions became a significant threat to England, leading to conflicts and changes in power dynamics. The process of unification and consolidation of the Anglo-Saxon kingdoms eventually led to the formation of the medieval kingdom of England. This process continued after the period of 400-650 AD and culminated in the crowning of King Aethelstan as the first King of England in 927 AD.

Since “England” was in general usage when a good part of the Arthurian romances were written, however, the name appears quite often, indicating all or some portion of Britain. Malory, for instance, uses “England” without reservation. Usually, it is named as Arthur’s kingdom, although there are some notable exceptions. In Wirnt von Grafenberg’s Wigalois, for instance, the King of England wages war on Arthur, whose kingdom is in Brittany. In the Middle-English Sir Tristrem and the Norse and Icelandic Tristan sagas, it is Mark’s kingdom.

Sub-kingdoms include ArroyAvilionCameliard, the Delectable IsleKing Aman’s Land, Leicester, Listeneise (Listenois), Malahaut, Nohaut, Northumberland, and Roestoc.

See also
The Roman Empire | The Legend of King Arthur

Wigalois | Wirnt von Grafenberg, early 13th century
Tristrams Saga ok Ísöndar | 1226
Prose Brut | Late 13th century to late 15th century
Sir Tristrem | c. 1300
Saga af Tristram ok Isodd | 14th century
Le Morte Darthur | Sir Thomas Malory, 1469-1470