Turkey is a transcontinental country that straddles Eastern Europe and Western Asia.
Turkey | 0 to 1453 AD
Roman and Byzantine Period | 1st century BC – 4th century AD
Much of modern-day Turkey was incorporated into the Roman Republic and later the Roman Empire. Iconic cities such as Ephesus, Troy, and Antioch flourished during this period. The region was an important part of the Byzantine Empire, also called the Eastern Roman Empire, after the Roman Empire’s division.
Early Christian History | 1st century AD onwards
Anatolia (Asia Minor) played a significant role in early Christian history. The Apostle Paul’s missionary journeys included areas in Turkey. The Council of Nicaea in 325 AD, held in present-day Iznik, was a pivotal event in the development of early Christian doctrine.
Rise of the Seljuk Turks | 11th century
In the late tenth and early eleventh centuries, the Seljuk Turks began migrating into Anatolia and established a presence in the region. The Battle of Manzikert in 1071 marked a turning point, leading to greater Turkish control of Anatolia.
Medieval Period | 11th – 13th centuries
The Analotian Seljuk Sultanate emerged, with its capital in Konya. It controlled much of Anatolia. The Crusaders, launced by Western European powers, brought the region into contact with European states.
Mongol Invasion and Beyliks | 13th centuries
The Mongol invasion in the thirteenth century had a significant impact on Anataloia. Following the Mongol disruption, various Anatolian Beyliks (small emirates) emerged, paving the way for further developments.
The Rise of the Ottoman Empire | 14th century onwards
Osman I founded the Ottoman Meylik in the late thirteenth century, which would grow into the powerful Ottoman Empire. The Ottomans gradually expanded their territory in Anatolia and the Balkans.
The Conquest of Constantinople | 1453
The Ottoman Empire, under Mehmed the Conqueror, captured Constantinople (modern-day Istanbul) in 1453, marking the end of the Byzantine Empire.
Roman de Brut | Wace, c. 1155
Wigalois | Wirnt von Grafenberg, early 13th century
Alliterative Morte Arthure | c. 1400
Le Morte Darthur | Sir Thomas Malory, 1469-1470