1. Carlisle
    Cardoile, Carlele, Carlile, Carlle, Carlill
    Welsh: Caer Lliwelydd, Cardueil; Latin: Luguvalium, Luguvallum

    One of Arthur's court cities. A Cumbrian city situated at the western end of Hadrian's Wall on the confluence of the rivers Eden, Calder and Petteril. Originally called Luguvalium by the Romans, during whose occupation it was a prosperous settlement, it was later raided successively by Picts, Vikings and Scots. Chrétien makes Carlisle the seat of Arthur's court, but this connection is not made by Geoffrey, Wace or Layamon. Later writers manly connect Gawaine with Carlisle, especially in respect of the beheading, at his own request, of the Carl of Carlisle.

    The entire area surrounding the city is shrouded in legends concerning the ancient kingdom of Rheged. Malory uses both names. Cardoile in Welsh is "Caer Lliwelydd", or "Cardueil".

    According to Geoffrey of Monmouth, it was named after King Leil, who ruled in the tenth century BC. Several authors suggest Carlisle as Arthur’s capital, or as one of his courts. Chrétien de Troyes seems to make more of this city than of Camelot and maybe even of Caerleon. It is in Carlisle that he begins the romance of Yvain; in Carlisle that he shows Percivale first finding Arthur's court; and, in Erec and Enide, Erec tells Guivret the Little that he hopes to find Arthur's court either at Carlisle or Robais (which suggests that they might lie in some proximity to each other).

    The city’s original name, Luguvalium/Luguvallum, may derive from the Celtic god Lug. In the sixth century, it was the capital of the kingdom of Rheged. Geoffrey of Monmouth names Lot, Gawaine’s father, as the Earl of Carlisle. Continental authors probably intend Carlisle when they mention Arthur’s Cardueil court. The Carl of Carlisle features in two English romances. Malory locates two pivotal events at the city: the healing of Sir Urry and the rescue of Guenevere from the stake. In Sir Walter Scott’s The Bridal of Triermain, Arthur offers the city to the knight who will marry his daughter, Gyneth.

  2. Carlisle, Carl of

    A giant, churlish (carl means 'churl') nobleman from Carlisle, famed for his poor hospitality. He kept a bull, a boar, a bear, and a lion as pets.

    Gawaine, Kay, and Bishop Baldwin lodged with him after becoming lost during a hunt. The Carl beat Baldwin and Kay after they insulted him. He put Gawaine through several tests (including, in one version, a Beheading Game) and was ultimately impressed with his courtliness and his willingness to obey his host.

    He had become a giant because of a spell which was broken when, at his own behest, his head was duly cut off by Gawaine. Gawaine married his daughter. Arthur knighted him and made him Lord of Carlisle. He explained to Gawaine that as a youth he had made a vow to test all those who lodged with him, and to kill those who failed. Gawaine’s nobility freed him from the vow. In reward, he gave Gawaine his lovely daughter in marriage.

    Arthur made him the lord of Carlisle and gave him a seat at the Round Table. The Carl founded an abbey in honor of the many knights he had slain. Some say he took the name Carl only after he had become Lord of Carlisle.

  3. Carlisle, Suffragan of

    A suffragan is a bishop serving as assistant to the bishop of a diocese. It was the Suffragan of Carlisle who finally baptized Sir Palomides at Tristram's behest.