Welsh: Caerdyf
Caerdif, Cardef, Caerdydd, Caerdyv, Kardyval

A city in Glamorganshire, southern Wales, near Caerleon-on-Usk. The name Cardiff is derived from the Welsh name Caerdyf, which means “Fort on the Taff.”

Cardiff is named in some romances as one of Arthur’s several courts. The Alliterative Morte Arthure and Malory mention one of Arthur’s knights called the “Captain of Cardiff,” who fought in the war against Rome.

Cardiff was part of the Roman province of Britannia. The Romans established a fort and civilian settlement at Cardiff around the late first century AD. It was known as Venta Silurum and served as a strategic outpost for Roman control in the region. Venta Silurum was situated on the eastern bank of the River Taff.

After the Roman Empire began to withdraw from Britain in the early fifth century, the region went through a period of transition and political upheaval. During this time, the area around Cardiff came under the influence of Celtic Britons, specifically the Silures tribe, who inhabited the region before and during the Roman period.

In the late fifth and early sixth centuries, the Anglo-Saxons, a Germanic tribal confederation, began invading and settling in various parts of Britain. The Anglo-Saxon conquests and the subsequent establishment of their kingdoms led to significant cultural and political changes in the region, with Celtic Britons often being pushed to the western and northern parts of the island.

Alliterative Morte Arthure | c. 1400
The Carle off Carlisle | Early 16th century
Syre Gawene and the Carle of Carlyle | c. 1400
Le Morte Darthur | Sir Thomas Malory, 1469-1470