Nightbringer | The Arthurian Online Encyclopedia


Welsh: Morgannwg
Glamour, Glomorgan, Gwynllyg

Glamorgan is a historic county located in South Wales. It is located in the southern part of Wales and is bordered by the Bristol Channel to the south.

A Welsh country, containing Caerleon, along the River Usk.

The Life of St. Cadoc notes its king as Gwynnlyw (Gwynnlym Filwk), who was once protected by Arthur. It is named as one of Arthur’s courts in Meriadeuc and other texts. A Middle English poem says that Arthur gave the land to Gawain after Gawain fought a great duel against Galleron of Galloway.

Glamorgan | 0 to the 9th century AD

Roman Period | 1st century BC – 5th century AD
During the Roman period, the area that would become Glamorgan was part of the Roman province of Britannia. The area was inhabited by Celtic tribes, including the Silures. The Silures were known for their resistance to Roman conquest.

The Roman Empire expanded into the area, establishing forts and settlements as part of their occupation of Britain, and the region likely experienced Romanization to some extent. The Roman town of Neath, known as Nidum in Roman times, was an important settlement in the area. Roads, such as the Roman road known as the Via Julia Maritima, connected Glamorgan to other parts of Roman Britain.

Post-Roman Period | 5th – 8th centuries
With the decline and withdrawal of Roman influence in the early fifth century, the region became vulnerable to various external pressures. Celtic tribes, including the Welsh-speaking ancestors of the modern Welsh people, inhabited the area.

By the sixth century, the region was divided into smaller early medieval kingdoms, including Glywysing and Gwent. The native Britons in Glamorgan faced conflicts with incoming Anglo-Saxons, as well as with other indigenous groups.

Anglo-Saxon and Viking Incursions | 8th – 9th centuries
The later part of the eighth century and the ninth century saw increased Viking raids along the coasts of Britain, including Glamorgan. The Vikings targeted monasteries, coastal settlements, and trade routes. The town of Llantwit Major, for example, is believed to have been attacked by Vikings during this period.

Welsh Kingdoms
The Welsh kingdoms that emerged during this time, including the Kingdom of Glywysing in the region that would become Glamorgan, played a crucial role in resisting external threats. Glywysing was one of the kingdoms traditionally associated with the area, and its rulers sought to defend their territory against Anglo-Saxon encroachment.

Christianity and Monasticism
The spread of Christianity continued during this period, and monastic communities became centers of learning and cultural development. Missionaries like Saint Illtud played a role in spreading the faith. Llantwit Major, an important monastic center, played a role in preserving knowledge and contributing to the cultural identity of the region.

The Formation of the Kingdom of Morgannwg
The Kingdom of Morgannwg, which encompassed parts of modern Glamorgan, emerged in the ninth century. It was one of the early Welsh kingdoms. The rulers of Morgannwg sought to maintain autonomy and resist external pressures from both the Anglo-Saxons and Vikings.

Life of St. Cadoc | Lifris, late 11th century
Meriadeuc or Le Chevalier aux Deux Épées | c. 1225-1250
The Awntyrs off Arthure at the Terne Wathelyn | Late 14th century