Welsh: Morgannwg
Glamour, Glomorgan, Gwynllyg

Glamorgan is a historic county located in the southern coast of Wales.

A Welsh country, containing Caerleon, along the River Usk.

The Life of St. Cadoc notes its king as Gwynnlyw (Gwynnlym Filwk), who was once protected by Arthur. It is named as one of Arthur’s courts in Meriadeuc and other texts. A Middle English poem says that Arthur gave the land to Gawain after Gawain fought a great duel against Galleron of Galloway.

Glamorgan | First century to 700 AD

During the first to fifth century AD, Glamorgan was inhabited by Celtic tribes, including the Silures. The Silures were known for their resistance to Roman conquest. The Roman Empire expanded into the area, establishing forts and settlements as part of their occupation of Britain. Roads, such as the Roman road known as the Via Julia Maritima, connected Glamorgan to other parts of Roman Britain.

During the Roman occupation, Glamorgan became integrated into the Roman administration and economy. The Romans introduced urbanization, infrastructure, and Latin language to the region.

In the period of fifth to seventh centuries, the Roman Empire weakened and the Roman authority in Britain declined. In the early fifth century, Roman troops left Britain to defend the collapsing empire. Glamorgan, like other parts of Britain, experienced a period of instability and was subject to raids by various groups, including the Irish and Anglo-Saxons.

By the sixth century, the region was divided into smaller early medieval kingdoms, including Glywysing and Gwent. The native Britons in Glamorgan faced conflicts with incoming Anglo-Saxons, as well as with other indigenous groups.

Christianity began to take root in Glamorgan during the early medieval period. Missionaries like Saint Illtud played a role in spreading the faith. Monastic settlements, such as Llantwit Major, became centers of learning and religious activity.

The early medieval Welsh kingdoms in Glamorgan were part of the broader struggles between native Britons and the incoming Anglo-Saxons. Anglo-Saxon invasions and incursions put pressure on the Welsh kingdoms, leading to territorial conflicts.

Life of St. Cadoc | Lifris, late 11th century
Meriadeuc or Le Chevalier aux Deux Épées | c. 1225-1250
The Awntyrs off Arthure at the Terne Wathelyn | Late 14th century