NIGHTBRINGER | The Arthurian Encyclopedia


Frilui is a historical region located in northeastern Italy, bordering Austria, Slovenia and the Adriatic Sea.

A European city near Aquileia through which Perceval’s uncle Trevrizent traveled.

In the context of Wolfram’s Parzival, Friuli likely refers to the historical region rather than a specific city. The mention of Friuli in medieval literature could encompass various settlements within the broader region, and the term might be used more loosely than a specific city name.

Friuli | 0 to the 9th century AD

Roman Period | Before 476 AD
Friuli was inhabited by various Illyrian and Celtic tribes before coming under Roman control. The Romans established colonies in the region, and it became an important part of the Roman Empire. Aquileia, founded in 181 BC, became a major Roman city and a key center in the region.

Barbarian Invasions | 4th – 6th centuries
During the decline of the Western Roman Empire, Friuli faced invasions by various barbarian tribes, including Huns, Visigoths and Ostrogoths. The region witnessed instability and changes in political control.

Lombard Rule | 6th – 8th centuries
The Lombards, a Germanic tribe, established the Lombard Kingdom in Italy in the sixth century. Friuli came under Lombard rule, and the Lombards created the Duchy of Friuli in the sixth century. The Lombards held sway over Friuli until the arrival of the Franks.

Frankish Rule | 8th century
Charlemagne, the Frankish king, incorporated Friuli into the Carolingian Empire in the late eighth century. Charlemagne sought to assert control over the region and establish Carolingian authority.

Patriarchate of Aquileia | 8th century
In 737 AD, Pope Gregory II established the Patriarchate of Aquileia, making the city a religious and ecclesiastical center. The Patriarchate of Aquileia played a crucial role in the religious and cultural life of Friuli.

Venetian Republic
Parts of Friuli, including the city of Udine, came under the influence of the Venetian Republic in the later medieval period.

Cultural and Ecclesiastical Influence
Aquileia, as a major ecclesiastical center, contributed to the Christianization of the region. The establishment of monasteries and churcher further shaped the cultural and religious landscape of Friuli.

Political Changes and Invasions
The region experienced political changes and invasions during this period, including conflicts with the Byzantine Empire. The vulnerability of the region to external pressures contributed to its complex political history.

Parzival | Wolfram von Eschenbach, 1200–1210