Italy


Italy is a country in southern Europe with a long coastline along the Mediterranean Sea.

Morgan Le Fay was believed to live in the region of Calabria in southern Italy. In Sicily she is the cause of the mirage called Fata Morgana.

Florent and Gawaine were on a mission in northern Italy to procure supplies. There they learned of a Roman brigade nearby, led by the Duke of Lorraine. They managed to rout the Romans with a much smaller force.


Italy | 500 BC to 1000 AD

The history of Italy during this time period is a complex narrative marked by the rise and fall of various civilizations and empires.

Etruscans and Early Rome | 500 BC to 27 BC
In the fifth century BC, the Italian Peninsula was inhabited by various peoples, including the Etruscans, Greeks, and Italic tribes. Rome, a small city-state, began to expand its influence during this time, eventually establishing the Roman Republic in 509 BC.

Roman Republic and Empire | 27 BC to 476 AD
Rome evolved from a republic to an empire during this period, with Augustus becoming the first Roman Emperor in 27 BC. The Roman Empire expanded to encompass vast territories, including the entire Italian Peninsula, much of Europe, North Africa, and parts of the Middle East. Rome made significant contributions to art, architecture, law, and engineering.

The Western Roman Empire faced the decline and internal strife and ultimately fell in 476 AD when Odoacer, a Germanic chieftain, deposed the last Roman emperor, Romulus Augustulus.

Migration Period | 4th to 6th centuries
The fall of the Western Roman Empire led to a period of migration and invasions by various Germanic tribes, including the Vandals, Visigoths and Ostrogoths. The Italian Peninsula saw significant political fragmentation and changes in leadership.

Ostrogothic Kingdom | 493-553
After the fall of the Western Roman Empire, Italy came under the rule of the Ostrogoths. Theodoric the Great established the Ostrogothic Kingdom in Italy.

Byzantine Rule | 553-751
The Byzantine Empire, with its capital in Constantinople (modern-day Istanbul), under Emperor Justinian I, reclaimed Italy from the Ostrogoths in 553 AD, held control over parts of southern Italy and Sicily. Italy became part of the Byzantine Exarchate of Ravenna.

Lombard Kingdom | 568-774
The Lombards, a Germanic people, invaded Italy in the late sixth century and established the Lombard Kingdom in northern and central Italy, leading to a period of Lombard and Byzantine conflict.

Carolingian and Holy Roman Empire | 8th to 9th centuries AD
Charlemagne, the Frankish king, invaded Italy in 774, leading to the defeat of the Lombards and the incorporation of their kingdom into the Carolingian Empire. Charlemagne was crowned Emperor of the Holy Roman Empire by Pope Leo III in 800, marking the beginning of a new political entity that included parts of Italy.

Following Charlemagne’s death, his empire was divided among his grandsons. Italy became a contested region, with power struggles between local rulers, the Papacy, and the Holy Roman Empire. The Papal States emerged as a territorial entity in central Italy, controlled by the Pope. These states played a crucial role in the politics of the Italian peninsula.


Notes
Walsh-land is the German name of Italy, according to The Place-names in Wales (1912).


See also
Byzantine Empire | The Legend of King Arthur
Hill of the Cat | The Legend of King Arthur


Places in Italy
Amalvi
Apulia
Chipre
Gaul
Genoa
Lombardy
Modena
Pavia
Petersand
Pleasance
Pontremoli
Sicily
Spoleto
Tuscany
Viterbo