Roman: Glevum
Caer-Glou, Caer Loyw, Gloucestre

Gloucester is a historical city located in the southwestern part of England, in the county of Gloucestershire.

In Ambrosius’s time, according to Geoffrey of Monmouth, it was ruled by Earl Eldol, and the bishop was his brother Eldad; later, the Earl of Gloucester was Morvid.

In the Vulgate Merlin, an unnamed Earl of Gloucester fights in Arthur’s army in the Roman War. In Culhwch and Olwen, Arthur’s warriors rescue the huntsman Mabon from a Gloucester prison. The English ballad “King Arthur’s Death” names Arthur’s Sir Lucan as Gloucester’s duke.

Gloucester | 0 to 700 AD

Gloucester’s history dates back to Roman times when it was known as Glevum. The Romans established a fort and settlement in the area around 43 AD as part of their conquest of Britain. Glevum served as a strategic Roman settlement, situated at the crossing point of the River Severn and several important roads. It grew into an important administrative and trading center, featuring a forum, basilica, and defensive walls.

During the late Roman period, Glevum continued to thrive as a center of trade and administration. It likely experienced some decline in the fourth and fifth centuries as the Roman Empire faced various challenges, including invasions and political instability.

After the Roman withdrawal from Britain in the early fifth century, the Anglo-Saxons began to settle in the region. The Anglo-Saxon Chronicles mention Gloucester in the context of various battles and events during this era. The town became part of the Anglo-Saxon kingdom of Mercia.

By the seventh century, Christianity began to take root in the area. The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle records the establishment of a monastery in Gloucester by the Mercian King Osric around 680 AD. The monastery, dedicated to Saint Peter, is considered a precursor to Gloucester Cathedral.

Culhwch and Olwen | Late 11th century
Historia Regum Britanniae | Geoffrey of Monmouth, c. 1138
Roman de Brut | Wace, c. 1155
”King Arthur’s Death” | 16th century