Established: c. 13th century BC
An ancient region located in the southern part of modern-day Jordan.
Idumea | 100 BC to 700 AD
In the first century BC, the Roman Republic and later the Roman Empire expanded their control over various regions of the eastern Mediterranean, including Idumea. The region became part of the Roman province of Judea, and it was administered as part of the broader Judean territory. During the period of the first century BC to the sevent century AD, the influence of Roman and later Byzantine were growing in the region.
In the first century AD, Idumea was ruled by King Herod the Great, who was of Edomite descent. Herod was a client king of Rome and was known for his ambitious building projects, including the expansion of the Second Temple in Jerusalem.
During the first and second centuries AD, a series of conflicts known as the Jewish-Roman Wars occured in the eastern Mediterranean, including in the province of Judea. The Jewish population of Judea rebelled against Roman rule, resulting in the destruction of the Second Temple in Jerusalem in 70 AD and the eventual suppression of the Jewish Revolt. Following the Jewish-Roman Wars, the region of Idumea continued to be under Roman and later Byzantine control. The Byzantine Empire, which was the eastern half of the Roman Empire, maintained administrative authority in the region.
During the early centuries of the Common Era, Christianity spread throughout the eastern Mediterranean, including the region of Idumea. The Byzantine Empire played arole in the Christianization of the area, and Christian communities were established in various parts of Idumea.
In the seventh century, the Islamic expansion and the Arab Conquest swept across the Middle East. The region of Idumea was graducally incorporated into the expanding Islamic caliphates, and the Arab-Muslim presence became prominent. The Arab Conquest marked the end of Byzantine rule in Idumea and the broader Levant. The region underwent a process of Arabization and Islamization, with Arabic becoming the dominant language and Islam the predominant religion.
Roman de Brut | Wace, c. 1155