NIGHTBRINGER | The Arthurian Encyclopedia


Italian: Lombardia

Lombardy is a region located in the northern part of Italy.

The region capital of Lombardy is Milan (Milano in Italian), from which great warriors were said to come. This region had not yet been conquered by the Lombards, however, in the Arthurian period.

It is said to be the territory of King Ladis, as well as duke of Lombardy was Gradie, an ally of the Roman Emperor Valentinian.

Emperor Lucius of Rome brought many Lombard warriors with him when he made war against King Arthur. Arthur later marched through Lombardy on his way to capture Rome. In Chestre’s Launval, Lombardy is the home of the giant knight Valentyne.

Lombardy | 0 to 800 AD

Roman Lombardy | 0 to 5th century AD
During the early part of this period, Lombardy, like much of northern Italy, was part of the Roman Empire. Several Roman settlements and roads were established in the region. Cities like Mediolanum (modern-day Milan) grew in importance as centers of administration and trade within the Roman province of Italia.

Barbarian Invasions | 5th to 6th centuries AD
The decline of the Western Roman Empire in the fifth century brought about invasions by various barbarian groups into the Italian Peninsula, including Lombardy. The region was occupied by various tribes, including the Visigoths and the Ostrogoths. The Lombards, a Germanic people, invaded and established control over much of northern Italy, including the region that would later be named Lombardy. Their kingdom, known as the Lombard Kingdom, was established in 568 AD, with Pavia as its capital.

The Lombard Kingdom | 6th to 8th centuries AD
The Lombard Kingdom, also known as the Lombard Duchy or Lombardic Italy, played a significant role in the region’s history during this period. The Lombards adopted Roman traditions and had a lasting impact on the region’s culture and identity.

Lobard rule was characterized by both conflict and cooperation with the Byzantine Empire, which controlled parts of southern Italy. The Lombard Kingdom faced internal divisions and external pressures, including the expansion of the Franks from the north. The Lombard Kingdom reached its height under King Liutprand (712-744), who extended Lombard control over a significant portion of Italy.

Carolingian Conquest | 8th century AD
The Lombard Kingdom faced increasing pressure from the Carolingian Franks, led by Charlemagne (also known as Charles the Great). Charlemagne’s forces invaded Lombardy in 774 AD, leading to the capture of King Desiderius and the incorporation of Lombardy into the Carolingian Empire.

Brut | Layamon, late 12th century to mid-13th century
Sir Launfal | Thomas Chestre, late 14th century
Alliterative Morte Arthure | c. 1400
Le Morte Darthur | Sir Thomas Malory, 1469-1470