Arthur’s warriors pursued a piglet named Grugyn during the epic hunt of the boar Twrch Trwyth in this area, according to Culhwch and Olwen. Elffin (Elphin), son of Gwyddno Garanhir, became a king of Ceredigion.
Ceredigion | 0 to the 9th century AD
Roman Period | 1st – 5th centuries
Wales, including the area that would become Ceredigion, was part of the Roman province of Britannia. Roman influence included the construction of roads, fortifications – such as those at Penparcau near Aberystwyth – and possibly villas. Ceredigion has evidence of prehistoric settlement, including hillforts and burial sites.
Post-Roman Period | 5th – 7th centuries
With the decline and withdrawal of Roman authority in the early fifth century, various Celtic peoples, including the ancestors of the Welsh, began to assert their independence. The post-Roman period saw the emergence of small kingdoms and the establishment of early Welsh polities. The kingdom of Ceredigion itself, however, did not fully take shape until later.
Kingdom of Ceredigion | Late 5th century – 7th century
Ceredigion, along with other regions, experienced a period of political fragmentation as smaller kingdoms emerged. Oneof these was likely the early kingdom of Ceredigion. The exact political boundaries and rulers of this early kingdom are not well-documented, and historical sources from this time are limited.
The early kingdom of Ceredigion likely saw the gradual adoption of Christianity, influenced by the activities of missionaries and the development of monastic communities. The establishment of Christian monastic settlements, often in remote areas, contributed to the spread of the faith. Monastic life was characterized by a focus on prayer, learning, and sometimes missionary work.
Anglo-Saxon and Irish Influence | 6th – 7th centuries
During this period, there were interactions with Anglo-Saxon England and Irish settlers. Coastal areas, including Ceredigion, may have been exposed to both trade and conflict with these neighboring groups.
Kingdom of Seisyllwg | 7th – 9th centuries
By the seventh century, Ceredigion became part of the larger kingdom of Seisyllwg, which also included other Welsh regions like Dyfed and Ystrad Tywi. The kingdom of Seisyllwg was one of the realms established in Wales during a period of consolidation in response to external threats, including pressure from Anglo-Saxon kingdoms.
With the formation of the larger kingdom of Seisyllwg, the Christianization process continued. The establishment of churches and monastic foundations became more organized, and the Welsh Church began to take shape. The influence of monasticism on Welsh Christianity was particularly significant.
Viking Raids | 8th – 9th centuries
The late eighth and ninth centuries witnessed Viking raids along the coasts of Wales. These raids may have affected Ceredigion and prompted responses from local rulers.
Integration into Deheubarth | 9th century
By the ninth century, Ceredigion became part of the expanding kingdom of Deheubarth, which emerged as a significant power in southern Wales. Deheubarth would play a prominent role in subsequent Welsh history.
Culhwch and Olwen | Late 11th century
Breudwyt Rhonabwy | 13th century