NIGHTBRINGER | The Arthurian Encyclopedia


Oxfordshire is a county located in the south east region of England. It is bordered by several counties, including Northamptonshire, Buckinghamshire, Berkshire, Wiltshire, Gloucestershire, and Warwickshire.

Oxfordshire | 0 to the 9th century AD

Roman Period | 1st – 5th centuries
Oxfordshire, situated within the larger Roman province of Britannia, experienced Roman occupation. The Romans established settlements and infrastructure, including roads. Akeman Street, a Roman road, crossed Oxfordshire, connecting the Roman towns of Cirencester and St. Albans.

Post-Roman Period | 5th – 7th centuries
With the decline and withdrawal of Roman authority from Britannia in the early fifth century, Oxfordshire, like much of England, entered a period of transition. The region became part of the Anglo-Saxon kingdoms that emerged during this time.

Anglo-Saxon Settlement | 5th -9th centuries
The Anglo-Saxons, migrating from continental Europe, established settlements in Oxfordshire. The area would have been part of the Kingdom of Mercia, one of the dominant Anglo-Saxon kingdoms during the early medieval period. The town of Oxford itself is believed to have Saxon origins, and its name is derived from the Old English words Oxenaforda or Oxnaford, meaning a ford for oxen.

The spread of Christianity in Oxfordshire is associated with the Anglo-Saxon period. Christian communities, monasteries, and churches were established, contributing to the Christanization of the region.

Viking Raids | 8th – 9th centuries
Like many areas in England, Oxfordshire experienced Viking raids during the eighth and ninth centuries. The Vikings targeted monasteries and settlements along rivers. The impact of Viking incursions and the response of local rulers contributed to the evolving political landscape of the time.

Burials and Archaeological Evidence
Archaeological evidence, including burial sites and artifacts, provides insights into the material culture and settlement patterns of the early medieval period in Oxfordshire. These discoveries contribute to our understanding of how communities lived during this time.

Offa’s Dyke
Offa’s Dyke, a linear earthwork constructed by King Offa of Mercia in the late eighth century, marked the western boundary of the Kingdom of Mercia. While the dyke itself did not pass through Oxfordshire, it reflected the political and territorial dynamics of the Anglo-Saxon kingdoms.