Nightbringer | The Arthurian Online Encyclopedia


Bougrie, Hongherie, Hongrie, Honguerie, Hungre, Hungri, Hungrie

Hungary is a country located in central Europe, bordered by seven countries: Austria, Slovakia, Ukraine, Romania, Serbia, and Croatia.

Hungary has a rich history that dates back over a thousand years. It was founded as a state in the late nine century, which is much later than the traditional Arthurian period. Still, in the Arthurian texts, this country was assigned several kings.

In Claris et Laris it was ruled by King Saris who captured Cologne but was killed by Laris. Elsewhere the king is called JeremiahGawaine married his daughter.

Sagremor (Sagramore) is styled as the son of the King of Hungary. King Ditas of Hungary was listed among the followers of the Roman Emperor Thereus, when the latter attacked Arthur.

Hungary | 0 to 1200 AD

Prehistoric Periods
The Carpathian Basin, where Hungary is located, has been inhabited since the Paleolithic era. Various tribes and cultures occupied the region in prehistoric times, such as Celtic, Illyrian, and Germanic tribes.

Celtic and Roman Influence
Celtic tribes, such as the Scordisci, were present in the Carpathian Basin, and the region became part of the Roman Empire. The region was part of the Roman province of Pannonia, and Roman towns, roads, and forts were constructed. After the fall of the Western Roman Empire in the fifth century, various Germanic and Hunnic tribes passed through the area.

Migration Period | 4th – 9th centuries
During the Migration Period, various Germanic, Hunnic, and Slavic tribes passed through or settled in the Carpathian Basin. The Huns, led by Attila, played a significant role in the region during the mid-fifth century.

Arrival of the Magyars (Hungarians) | 9th century
The history of Hungary as a distinct entity begins with the arrival of the Hungarian tribes. The Magyars, a Finno-Ugric people, arrived in the Carpathian Basin in the late ninth century, migrated from the east, primarily from the Ural Mountains region. The leader Árpád is traditionally considered the founder of the Hungarian state.

The Magyars’ arrival is associated with the period known as the Hungarian Conquest, which began in the late ninth century. The Hungarian Conquest of the Carpathian Basin involved conflicts with local Slavic, Avar, and Moravian populations, as well as battles with East Frankish (East Germanic) and Byzantine forces. In 896, the Magyar tribal confederation, led by Árpád, successfully defeated the East Frankish army at the Battle of Pressburg (Bratislava.

Kingdom of Hungary
The Hungarian tribes established a principality under the leadership of the Árpád dynasty. Árpád’s grandson, Stephen I, became the first Christian king of Hungary and was later canonized as Saint Stephen. He ruled between 1000-1038. The Kingdom of Hungary was officially founded in the year 1000 when Pope Sylvester II recognized Stephen I as the king.

Hungary embraced Christianity, and under the rule of Stephen I and subsequent monarchs, the country underwent a process of Christianization. The Hungarian Kingdom established close ties with the Holy Roman Empire. Hungary expanded its territory during the tenth and eleventh centuries, gaining control of lands in modern-day Slovakia, Croatia, and Transylvania.

Vulgate Merlin | 1220-1235
Arthour and Merlin | Late 13th century
Le Morte Darthur | Sir Thomas Malory, 1469-1470
Claris et Laris | 1268