de Sur, Surie, Surre
The Vulgate Estoire del Saint Graal tells us that in Joseph of Arimathea’s time, Syria was ruled by Count Felix, and then by King Fanoyel. From Geoffrey of Monmouth, we learn that in Arthur’s time, its king, Evander, joined Rome in the war against Arthur and was killed.
Syria | 0 to 9th century
Prehistoric and Ancient Period
The area of modern Syria has been inhabited since the Paleolithic era, and it is home to some of the world’s earliest known civilizations. It was part of ancient Mesopotamia, with cities like Ebla and Mari that flourished during the third millenium BC.
Hellenistic and Roman Period
In the late fourth century BC, the region came under the rule of Alexander the Great and his successors, resulting in the Hellenistic influence. The Seleucid Empire ruled over the area, and cities like Antioch (Antakya) and Apamea were established. Syria became a Roman province in 64 BC and played a significant role in the Roman Empire.
Early Christian Communities
The spread of Christianity in the Eastern Mediterranean is an importan part of Syria’s history. The city of Antioch was an early center of Christianity, and it is associated with the teachings of the Apostle Paul.
In the fourth century, Syria was part of the Byzantine Empire, and it remained under Byzantine control until the Islamic conquests.
Islamic Conquest and Umayyad Caliphate
In the seventh century, Syria was conquered by the Islamic Caliphate, and it became a center of early Islamic civilization. Damascus served as the capital of the Umayyad Caliphate (661-750), one of the earliest Islamic empires. The Great Mosque of Damascus, one of the oldest and most important mosques in the world, was built during this period.
Gawain’s Wife | The Legend of King Arthur
Historia Regum Britanniae | Geoffrey of Monmouth, c. 1138
Roman de Brut | Wace, c. 1155
Wigalois | Wirnt von Grafenberg, early 13th century
Fourth Continuation of Chrétien’s Perceval | Gerbert de Montreuil, c. 1230
Palamedes | c. 1240
Floriant et Florete | c. 1250–1275
Claris et Laris | 1268
Ly Myreur des Histors | Jean D’Outremeuse, c. 1350
Alliterative Morte Arthure | c. 1400
Le Morte Darthur | Sir Thomas Malory, 1469-1470